Major facts and data

Q) What is the difference bw kwh and kw why we need to consider kwh reading than kw reading for power  consumptions?
KW, or kilowatts, is a measure of instantaneous power. KWH, or kilowatt-hours is the power used over time.

Suppose I have a light bulb. It is a 100 watt bulb. You are going to build a small power station to supply me with power. Now, a 100 watt bulb is 0.1 KW, since 1 KW is the same as 1000 watts. Say you buy a little gasoline generator and some fuel to run it. Lets say you decide to charge me one dollar per KW.

I turn on the light bulb for one minute. You measure 0.1 KW on my meter, so you charge me 10 cents ( $1.00 per KW * 0.1 KW = $0.10). Well, ten cents is not too bad, after all, you only had to supply power (and buy fuel), for one minute.

I turn on the light bulb for a week. You again measure 0.1 KW on my meter, so again, you charge me 10 cents. Do you see a problem with this? KW is simply how much power it takes to light the bulb. It has nothing to do with how long you run it. You will quickly go broke supplying me with power.

So, we need to have something that accounts for the time power is supplied. That’s what kilowatt-hours do. If I run my 100 watt bulb for one hour, that’s 0.1 KWH. If I run it for 5 hours, that’s 0.5 KWH, 100 hours is 10 KWH, and so forth.

Now suppose you again agree to supply me with power. This time though, you decide to charge me one dollar per KWH.

I turn on the bulb for one hour. The KWH is 0.1 KW * 1 Hour = 0.1KWH. You charge me $0.10.

I turn on the bulb for a whole day. The KWH is 0.1 KW * 24 Hours = 2.4 KWH. You charge me $2.40.

Ah, much better. Now, the longer you have to run the generator and supply me with power, the more money you will get. If I change my bulb to a 200 watt, you will need more fuel to run your generator, but you will get more money. If I run the bulb longer, you will also need more fuel, but you will also get more money.

That’s the main reason power companies primarily bill for KWH used.

States of India by installed power capacity

This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by installed capacity of power utilities with generation mode break-up as of 31-05-10published by the Ministry of Power with figures in millions of watts (megawatts).

Rank State/Union Territory Total Installed Capacity Total Thermo Nuclear Hydro RES**
India 161351.80 95151.74 4120.00 36877.76 13242.41
1 Maharashtra 21469.24 14071.28 852.06 3332.83 2159.21
2 Tamil Nadu 14638.28 6957.77 657.39 2093.95 4379.64
3 Gujarat 14325.47 8104.08 37.41 3572.93 668.66
4 Andhra Pradesh 13920.58 9498.39 825.00 3772.00 1397.50
5 Karnataka 10533.54 7034.47 203.72 1605.49 402.98
6 Uttar Pradesh 9,646.73 4057.09 190.90 3518.20 1880.54
7 Madhya Pradesh 6,780.01 3435.93 151.04 3031.57 161.47
8 West Bengal 8,113.27 4534.01 92.88 3223.67 262.71
9 Punjab 6,426.15 3774.03 469.00 1456.82 726.30
10 Rajasthan 7,731.69 6470.14 0.00 1162.00 99.55
11 Haryana 4,530.29 3054.03 76.16 1331.40 68.70
12 DVC 3386.00 3190.00 0.00 196.00 0.00
13 Delhi Territory 3,677.34 3045.20 47.08 585.06 0.00
15 Kerala 3514.05 1545.82 80.09 1769.10 119.04
12 Orissa 4072.46 1865.23 0.00 2174.93 32.30
19 Jharkhand 2,152.57 1972.52 0.00 176.00 4.05
21 Himachal Pradesh 1,896.47 156.43 14.08 1540.84 185.12
14 Chhattisgarh 3,607.05 3312.90 0.00 120.00 174.15
20 Bihar 1,969.99 1846.59 0.00 73.00 50.40
17 Uttarakhand 2,383.03 301.05 16.28 1955.73 109.97
18 Jammu and Kashmir 2,158.95 509.62 68.00 1469.50 111.83
22 Assam 980.30 522.19 0.00 431.00 27.11
23 Goa 357.23 327.18 0.00 0.00 30.05
24 Meghalaya 288.08 28.05 0.00 229.00 31.03
25 Pondicherry Territory 256.62 239.51 17.09 0.00 0.02
26 Tripura 243.36 165.35 0.00 62.00 16.01
28 Arunachal Pradesh 180.14 36.88 0.00 98.00 45.26
29 Manipur 157.86 71.41 0.00 81.00 5.45
30 Mizoram 119.33 67.86 0.00 34.00 17.47
27 Sikkim 193.09 76.98 0.00 75.00 41.11
31 Nagaland 102.67 21.00 0.00 53.00 28.67
32 NLC 100.17 100.17 0.00 0.00 0.00
33 Chandigarh Territory 93.46 41.58 4.84 47.04 0.00
36 Andaman and Nicobar Islands Territory 65.40 60.05 0.00 0.00 5.35
34 Dadra and Nagar Haveli Territory 80.78 78.80 1.98 0.00 0.00
35 Daman and Diu Territory 71.10 69.12 1.98 0.00 0.00
37 Lakshadweep Territory 10.73 9.97 0.00 0.00 0.76

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) includes SHP, BG, BP, U&I, and Wind Energy.

Abbreviation:—- SHP=Small Hydro Project, BG=Biomass Gasifier, BP=Biomass Power, U&I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy Sources.
From the table, we can see that Maharashtra is clearly the top in both total capacity and in thermal alone, whereas Tamil Nadu is clear top in Renewable Energy Sources, and Andhra Pradesh is top in Hydro Power closely followed by Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.


PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION PROVIDED ELECTRICITY  PARTICULARS     2006-07  (as on 28-2-2007)

(I)    Total No. villages   –   593732

(II)  No. of villages  Electrified   –  488173

(III) Percentage  Electrified  –    82.2 %

(IV) Percentage of  Rural population  Benefited   –   84 %

(V)  Pump sets  Energized   –   15096480

(VI)  Per Capita   Consumption    (Kwh)  –   619

A brief write up about natural fuel reserves:

Primary fuel resources of the country are Hydro Power, Fossil Fuels-Coal, Lignite, Natural gas and Nuclear Power as per details shown below:

Hydro :                                                        84044 MW @ 60 %  L.F

148700 MW of economically exploitable potential of installed capacity

Pumped Storage Hydro :                            94000 MW from 56 Nos. of identified  Projects.

Coal Reserves :                                           204.7 Billion Tonnes

Lignite Reserves :                                      27.5 Billion Tonnes

Crude Oil :                                                   732 Million Tonnes

Natural Gas :                                               660 Billion Cubic Meter

Uranium :                                                     6700 Tonnes

Thorium :                                                     363000 Tonnes

Future Projection of Capacity addition.

Tentative  11th  Five-Year  Plan  (2007-2012)  addition  will  be  78601  MW  comprising

16553 MW Hydro, 58668 MW Thermal and 3380 MW Nuclear.

Does your country import or export electricity? If so, where from or where to and the

quantity during the last five years ?

Yes, import from Bhutan. Installed capacity of two projects in operation in Bhutan is 406

MW (336+70) from which 270 MW surplus is exported to India.

Transmission and Distribution

What is the range of transmission voltage used through out your country?

State Grid :                                        400 kV, 220 kV, 132 kV, and below HVDC only in Maharashtra 110 kV

Regional Grids :                                400kV, HVDC bi-pole, HVDC b-t-b 765kV operated at 400kV

Inter Regional :                                 HVDC back-to-back, 400kV, 220kV

HVDC bi-pole lines :                         Rihand-Dadri;  Chandrapur-Padghe;  Talchar-Kolar

Inter-regional links with :                  Vindhyachal (1989), Chandrapur, Gazuwaka, Sasaram (2002)

HVDC back-to-back 765kV operated at 400k: Kishenpur-Moga, Anpara-Unnao, Tehri-Meerut

What is the length of installed network in circuit Kms. And how much is of high, medium and low voltage ?

The length of installed network in circuit Kms. as on 31st March 2006 is given below:

Voltage                                                                      Length in Circuit Kms.

132 KV                                                                                    120000

220 KV                                                                                     120000

400 KV                                                                                     75722

HVDC bi-pole lines 5000 MW                                                  10000

HVDC back-to-back 3000 MW                                               3000

765 KV 400 KV Op                                                                1185

(Source: CEA website)

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