Q) What is the difference bw kwh and kw why we need to consider kwh reading than kw reading for power consumptions?
KW, or kilowatts, is a measure of instantaneous power. KWH, or kilowatt-hours is the power used over time.
Suppose I have a light bulb. It is a 100 watt bulb. You are going to build a small power station to supply me with power. Now, a 100 watt bulb is 0.1 KW, since 1 KW is the same as 1000 watts. Say you buy a little gasoline generator and some fuel to run it. Lets say you decide to charge me one dollar per KW.
I turn on the light bulb for one minute. You measure 0.1 KW on my meter, so you charge me 10 cents ( $1.00 per KW * 0.1 KW = $0.10). Well, ten cents is not too bad, after all, you only had to supply power (and buy fuel), for one minute.
I turn on the light bulb for a week. You again measure 0.1 KW on my meter, so again, you charge me 10 cents. Do you see a problem with this? KW is simply how much power it takes to light the bulb. It has nothing to do with how long you run it. You will quickly go broke supplying me with power.
So, we need to have something that accounts for the time power is supplied. That’s what kilowatt-hours do. If I run my 100 watt bulb for one hour, that’s 0.1 KWH. If I run it for 5 hours, that’s 0.5 KWH, 100 hours is 10 KWH, and so forth.
Now suppose you again agree to supply me with power. This time though, you decide to charge me one dollar per KWH.
I turn on the bulb for one hour. The KWH is 0.1 KW * 1 Hour = 0.1KWH. You charge me $0.10.
I turn on the bulb for a whole day. The KWH is 0.1 KW * 24 Hours = 2.4 KWH. You charge me $2.40.
Ah, much better. Now, the longer you have to run the generator and supply me with power, the more money you will get. If I change my bulb to a 200 watt, you will need more fuel to run your generator, but you will get more money. If I run the bulb longer, you will also need more fuel, but you will also get more money.
That’s the main reason power companies primarily bill for KWH used.
States of India by installed power capacity
This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by installed capacity of power utilities with generation mode break-up as of 31-05-10published by the Ministry of Power with figures in millions of watts (megawatts).
|Rank||State/Union Territory||Total Installed Capacity||Total Thermo||Nuclear||Hydro||RES**|
|18||Jammu and Kashmir||2,158.95||509.62||68.00||1469.50||111.83|
|36||Andaman and Nicobar Islands Territory||65.40||60.05||0.00||0.00||5.35|
|34||Dadra and Nagar Haveli Territory||80.78||78.80||1.98||0.00||0.00|
|35||Daman and Diu Territory||71.10||69.12||1.98||0.00||0.00|
Renewable Energy Sources (RES) includes SHP, BG, BP, U&I, and Wind Energy.
Abbreviation:—- SHP=Small Hydro Project, BG=Biomass Gasifier, BP=Biomass Power, U&I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy Sources.
From the table, we can see that Maharashtra is clearly the top in both total capacity and in thermal alone, whereas Tamil Nadu is clear top in Renewable Energy Sources, and Andhra Pradesh is top in Hydro Power closely followed by Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION PROVIDED ELECTRICITY PARTICULARS 2006-07 (as on 28-2-2007)
(I) Total No. villages – 593732
(II) No. of villages Electrified – 488173(III) Percentage Electrified – 82.2 %
(IV) Percentage of Rural population Benefited – 84 %
(V) Pump sets Energized – 15096480
(VI) Per Capita Consumption (Kwh) – 619
A brief write up about natural fuel reserves:
Primary fuel resources of the country are Hydro Power, Fossil Fuels-Coal, Lignite, Natural gas and Nuclear Power as per details shown below:
Hydro : 84044 MW @ 60 % L.F
148700 MW of economically exploitable potential of installed capacity
Pumped Storage Hydro : 94000 MW from 56 Nos. of identified Projects.
Coal Reserves : 204.7 Billion Tonnes
Lignite Reserves : 27.5 Billion Tonnes
Crude Oil : 732 Million Tonnes
Natural Gas : 660 Billion Cubic Meter
Uranium : 6700 Tonnes
Thorium : 363000 Tonnes
Future Projection of Capacity addition.
Tentative 11th Five-Year Plan (2007-2012) addition will be 78601 MW comprising
16553 MW Hydro, 58668 MW Thermal and 3380 MW Nuclear.
Does your country import or export electricity? If so, where from or where to and the
quantity during the last five years ?
Yes, import from Bhutan. Installed capacity of two projects in operation in Bhutan is 406
MW (336+70) from which 270 MW surplus is exported to India.
Transmission and Distribution
What is the range of transmission voltage used through out your country?
State Grid : 400 kV, 220 kV, 132 kV, and below HVDC only in Maharashtra 110 kV
Regional Grids : 400kV, HVDC bi-pole, HVDC b-t-b 765kV operated at 400kV
Inter Regional : HVDC back-to-back, 400kV, 220kV
HVDC bi-pole lines : Rihand-Dadri; Chandrapur-Padghe; Talchar-Kolar
Inter-regional links with : Vindhyachal (1989), Chandrapur, Gazuwaka, Sasaram (2002)
HVDC back-to-back 765kV operated at 400k: Kishenpur-Moga, Anpara-Unnao, Tehri-Meerut
What is the length of installed network in circuit Kms. And how much is of high, medium and low voltage ?
The length of installed network in circuit Kms. as on 31st March 2006 is given below:
Voltage Length in Circuit Kms.
132 KV 120000
220 KV 120000
400 KV 75722
HVDC bi-pole lines 5000 MW 10000
HVDC back-to-back 3000 MW 3000
765 KV 400 KV Op 1185
(Source: CEA website)